Hidup terasa begitu penuh kejutan. Mondar mandir antara suka dan duka. Tidak sedang berada di sebuah roda berputar atau sedang mendaki gunung. Tapi sedang menjadi peran utama dalam skenario misterius dan unik ciptaan Tuhan. Tetaplah mencari "Benang Merah" dari setiap kisah nyata.

Jumat, 30 April 2010

-Indian Archipelago-

[That we HAVE from NUSANTARA]

*Indonesia consists of 17,508 islands, about 6,000 of which are inhabited.
*The five largest islands are Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan (the Indonesian part of Borneo), New Guinea (shared with Papua New Guinea), and Sulawesi.
*At 1,919,440 square kilometers (741,050 sq mi), Indonesia is the world's 16th-largest country in terms of land area.
*At 4,884 metres (16,024 ft), Puncak Jaya in Papua is Indonesia's highest peak, and Lake Toba in Sumatra its largest lake, with an area of 1,145 square kilometers (442 sq mi). The country's largest rivers are in Kalimantan, and include the Mahakam and Barito; such rivers are communication and transport links between the island's river settlements.
*Indonesia's location on the edges of the Pacific, Eurasian, and Australian tectonic plates makes it the site of numerous volcanoes. Indonesia has at least 150 active volcanoes.
*These are scattered over both sides of the equator.
*Lying along the equator, Indonesia has a tropical climate, with two distinct monsoonal wet and dry seasons. Average annual rainfall in the lowlands varies from 1,780–3,175 millimeters (70–125 in), and up to 6,100 millimeters (240 in) in mountainous regions.

*Indonesia's mineral resources were dominated by crude petroleum and natural gas but included significant reserves of coal, tin, nickel, copper, gold, and bauxite.
*Indonesia was the world's largest producer and exporter of liquefied natural gas.
*The amount of oil and gas lifting based on the 2010 State Budget is 965.000 bpd.
*Most coal reserves were located in southern Sumatra and eastern and southern Kalimantan. Total measured reserves were 4.2 billion tons, with an additional 12.9 billion tons classified as inferred reserves and 15 billion tons of hypothetical reserves.
*Indonesia was one of the world's four major tin producers, behind Brazil but close in ore production to Malaysia and China in the late 1980s. Tin ore production was centered on Bangka Island, part of Sumatera Selatan Province.
*Indonesia was among the world's top five producers of nickel ore in 1989, although Canada and the then-Soviet Union produced much greater quantities.
*Total proven and probable reserves of copper, centered in the Ertsberg and Grasberg areas of Irian Jaya, were 15 billion tons. In a related joint venture, Freeport Indonesia, Nippon Mining (Japan), Metallgesselschaft (Germany), and a private Indonesian investor had plans to start construction of a 150,000-ton annual production capacity, US$600 million copper smelter in Gresik, Jawa Timur Province.
*Most gold production officially reported in government statistics was a byproduct of Freeport Indonesia's copper mining.
*Total bauxite reserves of 396 million tons were found in the Bintan Island area and in Kalimantan Barat Province.

*Forests cover approximately 60% of the country.
*The world's second highest level of biodiversity (after Brazil)
*Indonesia's 80,000 kilometers (50,000 mi) of coastline are surrounded by tropical seas that contribute to the country's high level of biodiversity.

*Indonesia has around 300 ethnic groups, each with cultural differences developed over centuries, and influenced by Indian, Arabic, Chinese, Malay, and European sources.
*There are around 300 distinct native ethnicities in Indonesia and 742 different languages and dialects.
*The world's largest population of Muslims
*The world's fourth most populous country (With a population of around 230 million people,)

[The system PROCEED as The Republic of Indonesia]

*A republic with a presidential system
*The 1945 Constitution of Indonesia have revamped the executive, judicial, and legislative branches
*The president of Indonesia is the head of state, commander-in-chief of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, and the director of domestic governance, policy-making, and foreign affairs.
*Presidential election was the first in which the people directly elected the president and vice president.

*The highest representative body at national level is the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR)
*Its main functions are supporting and amending the constitution, inaugurating the president, and formalizing broad outlines of state policy. It has the power to impeach the president.
*The MPR comprises two houses; the People's Representative Council (DPR), with 560 members, and the Regional Representative Council (DPD), with 132 members.

*Indonesia's judiciary earned poor marks from expatriate business executives for having the worst system in Asia, in a survey conducted by a Hong Kong consulting firm.
*Indonesian legal system based on Roman-Dutch law, custom and Islamic law. Most of archipelago was under Dutch rule by start of 20th century.
*Four branches of judiciary outlined in Basic Law on Judicial Power 1970: general, religious, military and administrative courts. General courts include District Courts of First Instance, High Courts of Appeal, and Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung). Religious courts (Pengadilan Agama) established side by side with District Courts. Religious courts organised at two levels: first instance in each district and appellate courts in all provinces; have jurisdiction over civil cases between Muslim spouses on matters concerning marriage, divorce, reconciliation, and alimony.

*Indonesia maintains close relationships with its neighbors in Asia, and is a founding member of ASEAN and the East Asia Summit.
*Indonesia has been a member of the United Nations since 1950, and was a founder of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC).
*Indonesia is signatory to the ASEAN Free Trade Area agreement, the Cairns Group, and the WTO, and has historically been a member of OPEC, although it withdrew in 2008 as it was no longer a net exporter of oil.

*Administratively, Indonesia consists of 33 provinces, five of which have special status. Each province has its own political legislature and governor.
*The provinces of Aceh, Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Papua and West Papua have greater legislative privileges and a higher degree of autonomy from the central government than the other provinces.

[And now, what is HAPPENING in TANAH AIR?]

*Indonesia is the largest economy in Southeast Asia and a member of the G-20 major economies.
*Major industries include petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, and mining. Major agricultural products include palm oil, rice, tea, coffee, spices, and rubber.
*from 1989 to 1997, the Indonesian economy grew by an average of over 7%.
*Indonesia was the country hardest hit by the East Asian financial crisis of 1997–98
*As of 2006, an estimated 17.8% of the population was living below the poverty line.
*According to the 2006 estimates, nearly half of the population was living on less than US$2 per day.
*The unemployment rate decline to 8.46% in 2008.

*Indonesia's high population and rapid industrialization present serious environmental issues,
*Over-exploitation of marine resources, and environmental problems associated with rapid urbanization and economic development, including air pollution, traffic congestion, garbage management, and reliable water and waste water services.
*Deforestation and the destruction of peatlands make Indonesia the world's third largest emitter of greenhouse gases.
*Habitat destruction threatens the survival of indigenous and endemic species, including 140 species of mammals identified by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) as threatened, and 15 identified as critically endangered, including the Sumatran Orangutan.

*Indonesia had a three-tiered system of community health centers in the late 1990s, with 0.66 hospital beds per 1,000 population, the lowest rate among members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).
* In the mid-1990s, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), there were 16 physicians per 100,000 population in Indonesia, 50 nurses per 100,000, and 26 midwives per 100,000.
*Unsafe drinking water is a major cause of diarrhea, which is a major killer of young children in Indonesia
*Human immuno-deficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has posed a major public health threat since the early 1990s.
*In 2003 Indonesia ranked third among ASEAN nations in Southeast Asia, lagging behind Myanmar and Thailand, with a 0.1 percent adult prevalence rate, 130,000 HIV/AIDS cases, and 2,400 deaths.
*Three other health hazards facing Indonesia in 2004 were dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and avian influenza.
*Malaria remains one of the major infectious diseases in large parts of Indonesia.
*Indonesia has developed and started implementation of a five-year strategic plan for TUBERCULOSIS control (2002-2006)
*Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
*Vectorborne diseases: chikungunya, dengue fever, and malaria
*Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)
*The establishment of Jamkesmas/Askeskin in 2004

*Media freedom in Indonesia increased considerably after the end of President Suharto's rule
*Internet usage was estimated at 12.5% in September 2009.
*The TV market includes 10 national commercial networks, and provincial networks that compete with public TVRI
*Private radio stations carry their own news bulletins and foreign broadcasters supply programs.

*United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has previously recognized the keris, a traditional dagger in 2005, wayang puppets in 2003 and batik in 2009 as being part of Indonesia’s cultural heritage.
*Angklung (a bamboo musical instrument from West Java), gamelan (sets of tuned bronze gongs, drums, string instruments from Java and Bali) and sasando (a string instrument from East Nusa Tenggara) would be the next Indonesian art culture items
*Between 2000 and 2005, the number of Indonesian films released each year has steadily increased
*The government officially recognizes only six religions: Islam, Protestantism, Roman Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism.

*The most popular sports are badminton and football.
*Indonesian teams have won the Thomas Cup thirteen of the twenty-five times that it has been held since 1949
*Liga Indonesia is the country's premier football club league.

*Indonesia's 300,000-member armed forces (TNI) include the Army (TNI–AD), Navy (TNI–AL, which includes marines), and Air Force (TNI–AU).
*Defense spending in the national budget was 4% of GDP in 2006, and is controversially supplemented by revenue from military commercial interests and foundations.
*Following a sporadic thirty-year guerrilla war between the Free Aceh Movement (GAM) and the Indonesian military, a ceasefire agreement was reached in 2005.
*Separatist movements In Papua, there has been an implementation of regional autonomy laws.

*The Indonesian school system is immense and diverse.
*With over 50 million students and 2.6 million teachers in more than 250,000 schools, it is the third largest education system in the Asia region and the fourth largest in the world (behind only China, India and the United States).
*In 2007, spending on education was more than for any other sector, reaching an equivalent US$14 billion equivalent, or more than 16 percent of total government expenditure.
* In 2005 the Government launched a massive program called BOS (Biaya Operasional Sekolah, or School Operations Fund), as a way of injecting funds directly into schools in order to keep children in school and give schools some flexibility in managing their own funds.
*Only 55 percent of children from low-income families are enrolled in junior secondary schools.
*In 2003, Indonesia ranked 33 out of 45 countries in the Third International Mathematics Science Study (TIMSS).
*In the 2006 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), which looks at how well 15-year-old students are prepared for life, Indonesia ranked around 50 out of 57 countries in science, reading and math.

[then, the KEY for these trouble is]

However, political instability, slow economic reform, and corruption at all levels of government and business, have slowed the recovery.

*Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity" literally, "many, yet one")
*Keep our nation in unity of NKRI,
*INDONESIA BERSATU as the name of our president’s cabinet (2004-2014).

Generically, I took from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indonesia and others*, then edited by Tubagus Aryandi Gunawan.



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